We edit research papers, essays, college applications, and general writing according to APA, MLA, Chicago, CMS, IEEE, and other styles. We edit the following elements: title page, titles, table of contents, abstract, keywords, introduction, body, conclusion, reference list, works cited, parenthetical citations, footnotes, endnotes, appendices, and supplemental materials. We edit paper format to align with journal, application, essay, and other formatting requirements: headers, running head, page numbers, page order, page length, typeface, font type, font size, special characters, alignment, margins, line spacing, paragraph indentation, paragraph spacing, spacing after punctuation, general paper formatting, running head, page numbers, in-text citations, and accessibility. We organize your paper with headings, subheadings, and sections. We review and check the following grammar and mechanics of your paper: verbs, verb tense, pronouns, punctuation, spelling, hyphens, uniformity of spelling and references, capitalization, italics, abbreviations, acronyms, numbers, statistics, mathematics, lists, quotations, paraphrases, tense, adjective choice and limitation, concise writing, showing versus telling, word building, dialogue, sentence construction, sentence structure, word choice, voice, mood, subject-verb agreement, first person, second person, third person, anthropomorphism, logical comparisons, and singular “they”. We review and revise according to the following reporting standards: abstract standards, introduction standards, conclusion standards, standards for quantitative research, standards for qualitative research, and standards for mixed methods research. Additional standards for research writing include: theoretical framework, conceptual framework, literature review, methodology, methods, data collection, data analysis, researcher’s role, positionality statement, trustworthiness, credibility, ethical considerations, ethics, findings, results, discussion, limitations, directions for future research, implications for research, implications, for policy, and implications for practice. Editing for tables includes review and revision of: components, numbers, alignment, labels, keys, titles, captions, headings, sources, bibliographic information, body, notes, abbreviations, confidence intervals, borders, shading, long tables, wide tables, relation between tables, and accessible use of color. Editing for figures includes review and revision of: components, numbers, labels, titles, captions, images, keys, legends, relation between figures, photographs, electrophysiological data, radiological data, genetic data, other biological data, illustrations, citations, notes, and accessible use of color. Review of in-text citations includes the following: citation level, parenthetical, narrative, block quotations, cross-check reference list, annotations, paraphrases, source medium, multiple works, specific parts of a source, unknown author, anonymous author, unknown publication date, multiple authors, primary sources, secondary sources, works with the same author, works with the same date, authors with the same name, multivolume works, indirect sources, non-print internet sources, miscellaneous sources, online sources, transcripts, plays, screenplays, music scores, websites, periodicals, software, applications or apps, multiple citations, and necessary or unnecessary citations. Review and revision of the reference list includes: cross-check with or against in-text citations, author, date, source title or title of source, container title or title of container, other authors or other contributors, version, number, volume, publisher, publication date, publisher location, source location, format, and order. Review and revision of anti-bias, label-free, and inclusive language includes: age, gender, ability or disability, pronouns, historical context, intersectionality, precision in research terms, race or racial identity, sex or sexual identity or sexual orientation, ethnicity or ethnic identity, and socioeconomic status. Review and revision of other or general items for editing: clarity, coherence, conciseness, continuity, literary devices, logical flow, sentence structure, redundancy, repetition, qualifying language, modifiers, active voice, passive voice, wordy sentences or wordiness, filler words or fluff or flowery language, consistent tense, consistent tone, adverbs, verbs, cliches, parallelism, jargon, hedging, use of slang, tautologies, target audience, topic sentences, transitions, attributions, readability, plain language, purpose, significance, slang, media or pop culture references, humor, colloquialisms, literary devises, figurative language, and signal phrases.
We coach current and prospective or aspiring undergraduate students, graduate students, academics, researchers, postdocs or postdoctoral research associates, professors, scientists, teachers, educators, administrators across disciplines including but not limited to social sciences, life sciences, humanities, business, education, English, literacy and language education, sociology, psychology, biology, and pharmacy or pharmaceutical studies. Educational coaching involves personalized sessions or mentoring meetings to support the personal, professional, academic, and social development of students, researchers, professors, and other aspiring academics or higher education professionals such as university staff. We help clients cultivate skills and strategies to write for academic audiences or purposes such as essays, applications, manuscripts, grant proposals, conference proposals and presentations, and general academic job preparation. We listen and learn our clients’ strengths to understand their needs, co-develop goals and effective strategies for success and short / long-term achievement, and empower and build their capacity to improve, enhance, and authentically engage in their academic and professional work.
We serve as educational consults and advisors to provide individual or group guidance for writing academic manuscripts, grant proposal, college applications, university applications, graduate school or grad school applications, and other types of writing such as resumes, curriculum vitaes or CVs, and business proposals. Our multidisciplinary knowledge and experience provides counsel and advice to inspire and empower individual interests and objectives, as well as untap writing and communication potential to develop new competencies and accelerate career growth. Our methods are client centered, relationship focused, and results driven.
An academic manuscript is typically a research review, theoretical, conceptual, or empirical paper that is submitted to a publisher, editor, or producer for publication in an academic journal, book, conference proceedings, handbooks, curriculum or policy documents, or other scholarly outlet.
A master’s thesis is typically the final project or capstone requirement for the completion of a master’s degree in an academic field. A master’s thesis is generally completed by the master’s student with the guidance of a faculty advisor. It is similar to a doctoral dissertation but a short, more narrowly focused research study or review of literature.
A doctoral dissertation is typically a long, detailed scholarly contribution that serves as a reflection of a PhD student’s competence in or mastery of empirical research skills in a given discipline or field of study. The dissertation reflects content knowledge, theoretical and conceptual knowledge, methodological knowledge, and writing skills or abilities.
College and University Applications and Admissions
College and university applications and admissions processes are an opportunity for prospective students to demonstrate their knowledge, experiences, academic and professional aspirations, and reasons for applying to a particular school and program. The application serves as a representation of scholarly writing, and the admissions process may include an invitation to interview which is an important skill to practice and improve with the guidance of an experienced academic coach or counselor.
College and University Essays
College and university essays offer prospective students an opportunity to demonstrate their insights and extracurricular experiences. They are generally meant to be personal, creative, and tell a story or narrative that offers a deeper understanding of who the student is as a unique individual with wide-ranging lived experiences.
Academic writing is a formal style of writing that communicates ideas, research results, and information to universities, scholarly publication outlets, the broader academic community, and the general public. Academic writing or scholarly writing is nonfiction and typically reports on research findings produced through natural science or social science fields.
Academic Positions and Professions
Academic positions and professions include roles such as assistant professor, associate professor, full professor, tenure-track, clinical, visiting, teaching, research, administration, postdoctoral positions, PhD or doctoral students, graduate research and teaching assistants, adjunct professors, lecturers, instructors, and program directors. Academic careers are generally situated in public or private higher education institutions and may involve community engaged service activities.
Social science is the scientific study of human society and social relationships and includes fields such as anthropology, history, archaeology, human geography, economics, law, development studies, education, criminology, political science, translation studies, media studies, business and management, philosophy, health, international relations, linguistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology.
Life sciences involve the study of living organisms and include fields such as biology, botany, zoology, microbiology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, entomology, biotechnology, evolutionary biology, genetics, human anatomy, marine biology, molecular and cell biology, neuroscience, paleontology, and plant biology.
The humanities are academic disciplines that study human society and culture, including fields such as English, history, religious studies, art history, philosophy, foreign languages, journalism, gender and women studies, and diversity, equity, justice, and inclusion studies.
Business fields include majors such as accounting, marketing, sales, finance, international business, human resources, health services administration, management information systems, business administration and management, and Master of Business Administration degree programs. Other areas include consulting, entrepreneurship and small businesses, event planning and hospitality, and leadership development programs.
Education major fields of study include but are not limited to school counseling, educational leadership, special education, curriculum and instruction, elementary education, secondary education, and the study of K-12 or higher education grades and levels.
Medical Writing and Writers
Medical writing applies principles of clinical research to develop clinical trial documents that describe research results, product use, and other medical information related to medicine or healthcare.
Scientific Writing and Writers
Scientific writing is technical writing that scientists use to communicate their research to other scientists and broader audiences such as the general public.
Undergraduate Programs and Degrees and Majors
Undergraduate programs are two or four-year programs that follow secondary education and precede postgraduate education. Undergraduate programs typically result in an associate’s or bachelor’s degree from a community college, vocational school, liberal arts college, or research university. Common types of bachelor’s degrees include a Bachelor of Arts or B.A., Bachelor of Science or B.S., and a Bachelor of Fine Arts or B.F.A.
Master’s Programs and Degrees and Majors
A master’s degree is granted at the postgraduate level and represents mastery in a specific field of study or professional practice. Common reasons people might pursue a master’s degree include career changes, personal aspirations or goals, professional development opportunities, academic pursuits, resume or CV building, promotion targeting or career advancement, and personal fulfillment.
Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D. Programs and Degrees and Majors
The doctorate degree is the highest level or most advanced degree that an individual can earn to demonstrate mastery and expertise in a specific area of study or profession. Common research and professional doctorate degrees include: Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Doctor of Healthcare Administration (DHA), Doctor of Professional Studies, Doctor of Finance (DPH), Doctor of Social Work (DSW), Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.), Juris Doctor (JD), Doctor of Arts (DA), Doctor of Engineering (Deng), Doctor of Education (EdD), Doctor of Fine Arts (DFA), Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), and Doctor of Computer Science (DCS).
A teaching statement or teaching philosophy reflects an applicant or candidates’ personal views, beliefs, and practices regarding teaching. Reflections generally include reference to curriculum development, pedagogy, and philosophies about students and how to engage and empower students in learning.
A research statement summarizes an individual’s research achievements and generally includes current findings and accomplishments, as well as future goals or objectives.
Purpose Statement or Statement of Purpose
A statement of purpose or personal statement is designed to convince readers or application reviewers that an individual has knowledge and experiences that will enable them to be successful in an undergraduate or graduate program.
The purpose of a diversity statement is for an individual to explain their philosophies and experiences related to equity, diversity, justice, and inclusion in relation to personal and professional growth.
University of California or UC Essays and Common Application or App
The common application or common app is an undergraduate application that students can use to apply to over 1,000 member colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, China, Japan, and other countries in Europe.
Letter of Recommendation
A letter of recommendation is written for an individual or prospective student or job applicant to endorse their personal and professional skills such as communication skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills.
Academic Peer Review
The academic peer review process is used to evaluate an abstract, paper, manuscript, or article and determine whether it is worthy and ready to be published in a journal or presented at an academic conference. Peer review helps validate research and increases networking within and across scholarly communities.
Academic Career Planning
Academic career planning involves updating one’s resume or curriculum vitae, application portfolio items such as research and teaching statements, and preparing and practicing for academic job talks and conference presentations.
Grant proposals or grant writing involves applying for a financial grant provided by institutions such as universities, corporations, foundations, or government departments. Grant proposals are meant to be clear, concise, and direct documents that present the purpose of the research and persuade reviewers to fund the project.
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methodologies generally involve case study, narrative inquiry, ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Methods generally include open, closed, or semi-structured individual interviews, focus groups, observations, analytic memos, digital videos, artifacts, and other data collection approaches for understanding people’s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behaviors, and interactions.
Quantitative Research Methods
Quantitative research methodologies generally involve descriptive, correlational, causal-comparative, quasi-experimental, and experimental research. Quantitative research uses statistics to analyze numerical data gathered by researchers through surveys, questionnaires, and other forms of numerical data collection.
Academic Resume or Curriculum Vitae or CV
The academic curriculum vitae or CV or vita is a comprehensive statement of a student or academic researcher’s educational background, teaching, research, and service experiences. The curriculum vitae or cv or vita is used for applying to academic positions in universities, higher education institutions, or academia in general.
Copy editing ensures a piece of writing is accurate, clear, and correct in terms of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and other writing mechanics. Copyediting focuses on making sure the writing reads well for its intended audience and purpose.
Substantive editing or structural editing focuses on content, structure, flow, organization, and overall presentation of a text. It revises small details and improves the document as a whole.
Developmental editing involves a thorough evaluation of a piece of writing and typically involves rewriting to enhance and optimize the structure and contact of the scholarship. Developmental editing is the highest or most advanced level of editing and includes in-depth revisions and feedback.